behavioural changes of mice in different sound levels

Chapter I INTRODUCTION Background of the study Most of us are very used to the sound we hear in everyday life. Loud music, karaoke, speaker and even the sounds of transportation. People play songs on full volume and dance and sing until midnight which makes the condition of animals and individual’s living pretty worse. All of these have a part of a culture and rarely disturb us. Noise tends to disrupt the natural rhythm of life and make it a solid pollutant. By definition, noise is bothering and disturbing sound which can interfere with normal activities for humans and animals, such as sleeping, communication, reproduction and disrupt one’s quality of life. Excessive noise pollution, from the city streets can have a harmful effects on the humans, animals, plants and etcetera. Furthermore, noise pollution can cause behavioural changes and health problems to both humans and animals. In current animal economy noise has become an increasingly great but little noticed problem. Noise produced intensive effects and intermittent sound that generally perceived as the most alarming. The World Health Organization defines noise as “unwanted sound” or unpleasant sound that causes temporary disruption in the natural balance. This definition is usually applicable to sound or noises that are unnatural in volume and production. Our environment and even the people and animals is such that it has been difficult to escape noise. They become disoriented more easily and face many problems. In nature, animals may suffer which makes the easy prey and leads to dwindling population. As of now, trouble communicating and health issues are the main effects of excessive noise. Wildfire faces far more problems than humans because they are more dependent on sound they hear. Animals develop a better sense of hearing than us since their survival depends on it. However, the researcher felt that there is so much to be learned from taking a step back and consider research focus on the Behavioural Changes of Mice in Different Sound Levels. In order to achieve the objectives and successful application on noise policy, it is needed to integrate and cooperate the knowledge in both scientific area and experimental contribution. Objectives of the Study Generally, the study aims to determine the Behavioural Changes of Mice in Different Sound Levels. Specifically, the study sought to answer the question: 1. What is the Behavioural Changes of Mice in different Sound levels in low, medium and high. Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Behaviours of Mice According to Petcha (2018), mice like to keep themselves clean and will groom themselves periodically throughout the day. However, a mouse that spends an inordinate amount of time vigorously grooming himself might be a nervous or stressed-out mouse. A mouse might find a new/unfamiliar environment stressful, or he can become nervous if he is suddenly housed with other mice he does not know. He might even resort to this self-soothing behavior (constant, vigorous grooming) if he has no respite from bright lights; no den to retreat to or because of many other factors. A stressed-out mouse might even start to gnaw off his own fur and leave a bald spot in its wake. Dogs typically wag their tales when happy. Tail wagging in mice, however, can mean just the opposite. In mice, tail wagging is more like finger wagging in people — an expression of annoyance, or outright aggression if it is directed at another mouse. Mice usually grind their teeth when they are relaxed. A mouse can sometimes move his jaw back and forth so enthusiastically as he grinds his teeth that his eyeballs move in and out of their sockets! (Petcha, 2018). The position of your mouse’s ears can be a clue as to his mood. A curious mouse is inclined to perk his ears up or forward. If the ears are down and pointed back, the mouse is showing a defensive posture, especially if this is accompanied by stiff body language; he’s saying, “Back off!” (Petcha, 2018). Effects of Sound to Animals Although there is a limited body of literature dealing directly with the effects of noise on wildfire, possible effects can be interfered from information dealing with: (1) signal production and communication; (2) auditory ranges for different species; (3) direct effects of noise that have been demonstrated in laboratory or domestic animals and (4) incidental observation of responses to noise in wild animals. In attemting to analyse the possible signal-making effects of noise on animals, it is important to remember that different species are able to detect “sounds” Noise disrupts all kinds of animal activity. Animals have difficulty hearing each other’s mating calls, while low-frequency noises put animals on heightened alert, thus increasing stress hormone levels, and decreasing reproductive rates. Predators have difficulty locating hidden prey over the din of artificial noise. Animals scared away by noise are no longer around to pollinate plants and spread their seeds, so plants suffer too. (Wood, 2014) ″Many animal species evolved hearing sensitive enough to take advantage of the quietest conditions; their hearing is increasingly compromised by noise,″ (Dr Barber, 2009). When we start to add artificial, unfamiliar noises to natural soundscapes, it can alter the acoustic environment of these marine and terrestrial habitats. This can cause a range of problems. It can affect an animal’s ability to hear or make it difficult for it to find food, locate mates and avoid predators.It can also impair its ability to navigate, communicate, reproduce and participate in normal behaviours. Interest in the way sound affects wildlife has intensified over the last decade as more and more studies begin to explore how these changes in behaviour could have flow-on effects for not only individual animals and their populations, but for whole ecosystems. (austrialian academy of science, 2016) Mice Scientists and researchers rely on mice and rats for several reasons. One is convenience: rodents are small, easily housed and maintained, and adapt well to new surroundings. They also reproduce quickly and have a short lifespan of two to three years, so several generations of mice can be observed in a relatively short period of time. Mice and rats are also relatively inexpensive and can be bought in large quantities from commercial producers that breed rodents specifically for research.(Melina, 20110). House mice are second only to humanity as the most populous mammals in urban areas. House mice are considered dangerous and destructive pests. Because they carry and transmit viruses, bacteria and other diseases, mice are considered to be troublesome pests. Sound According to Chris Woodford (2016), sound—it′s almost impossible to imagine a world without it. It′s probably the first thing you experience when you wake up in the morning—when you hear birds chirping or your alarm clock bleeping away. Sound fills our days with excitement and meaning, when people talk to us, when we listen to music, or when we hear interesting programs on the radio and TV. Sound may be the last thing you hear at night as well when you listen to your heartbeat and drift gradually into the soundless world of sleep. Sound is fascinating—let′s take a closer look at how it works! Sound is the energy things produce when they vibrate (move back and forth quickly). If you bang a drum, you make the tight skin vibrate at very high speed (it′s so fast that you can′t usually see it), forcing the air all around it to vibrate as well. As the air moves, it carries energy out from the drum in all directions. Eventually, even the air inside your ears starts vibrating—and that′s when you begin to perceive the vibrating drum as a sound. In short, there are two different aspects to sound: there′s a physicalprocess that produces sound energy to start with and sends it shooting through the air, and there′s a separate psychological process that happens inside our ears and brains, which convert the incoming sound energy into sensations we interpret as noises, speech, and music.

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