STUDY GUIDES # 1, 2, and 3

These study guides will be very helpful towards your preparation for the midterms and the final exam. I strongly suggest that students attempt to answer all the questions. Students are also highly encouraged to submit answers to thethree study guide questions by the end of the semester, which, depending on accuracy of your answers and adherence to instructions given below, can earn up to a max.of45 points in extra credit (up to 15 points for each study guide).

Students who wish to submit answers to the study guide questions must follow the following instructions:

  • Answers must be typed and turned in as hard copy on the date and time of your final exam. If hand written assignment is submitted, 5 points will be deducted for each study guide. In addition, emailed assignments will not be accepted and cannot be used as proof that work was completed by the due date.
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  • If page numbers are indicated next to the section title, students will need to read those pages to find the answers to questions from that section.
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LAST NAME, first name

Study Guide Answers

Geology 001

Date (assignment submitted)










1.1 Geology: the Science of Earth (pages 4-8)

  1. Give one example each of internal Earth processes and external Earth processes


1.2 The Development of Geology (pages 9-12)

  1. What do you understand by the term Uniformitarianism?
  2. List the four eras of the geologic time scale, from youngest to oldest.


1.6 Early Evolution of Earth (pages 21-24)

  1. 4. List the inner planets and outer planets (Jovian planets). Describe basic differences in size and composition between the two.
  2. 5. Define the following terms: Astronomical unit (AU); Light year
  3. 6. Jupiter, the largest planet in our solar system is 5.2 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun. How long would it take to go from Earth to Jupiter if you traveled as fast as a jet (1000 kilometers/hour)? Referring to the GEOgraphics feature on page 23 will be helpful.
  4. 7. Give an estimate of the time when each of these formed:
  5. i) Milky Way ii) Universe iii) Sun            iv) Earth          v) Ceres (asteroid)


1.7 Earth’s Internal Structure (pages 25-26)

  1. List and describe the three major layers of the Earth as defined by their chemical composition.
  2. Distinguish between oceanic and continental crust.



2.2 Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Time (pages 44-47)

  1. Explain why the discovery of the fossil remains of Mesosaurus in both South America and Africa, but nowhere else, supports the continental drift hypothesis?


2.4 The Theory Of Plate Tectonics (pages 50-52)

  1. 11. Name the three types of plate boundaries.
  2. 12. List any seven of the largest lithospheric plates


2.6 Convergent Plate Boundaries And Subduction (pages 56-60)

  1. Define the following terms: subduction, trench
  2. Why does oceanic lithosphere subduct, while continental lithosphere does not?


2.7 Transform Plate Boundaries (pages 61-62)

  1. 15. What type of plate boundary is the San Andreas Fault?



Answer the following questions from pages 78-79 in your textbook (Earth, 11th edition).

  1. Question # 2 from page 78 in your textbook 17. Question # 9 from page 79 in your textbook







10.2 How do rocks deform? (Pages 339-341)

  1. Compare rock deformation at shallow depths with the type of deformation that occurs deep within Earth’s crust.


GeoGraphics: The SanAndreas Fault System (Pages 354-355)

  1. 19. On which plate is the city of Sacramento located: on North American or on Pacific?



Answer the following questions that can be found on page 359 in your textbook (Earth, 11th edition).

  1. 20. Question #4 21. Question #6


  1. MOUNTAIN BUILDING (pages 461-485)
  2. 22. Name a mountain belt located on each of the following continents: Asia, Europe, S America, N America
  3. 23. Name one example of a mountain system that developed along a transform plate boundary.
  4. 24. What is the difference between mountain systems that form at volcanic island arcs and at Andean-type plate margins (continental volcanic arcs)? Name at least two mountain systems that formed at volcanic island arcs and two at Andean-type plate margins.
  5. 25. Name one example of a mountain system that belongs to fault-block Mountains.



11.2 Faults and earthquakes (Pages 366-367)

  1. 26. During an earthquake the entire length of a fault slips in a single event that lasts less than 1 second. True or false?
  2. 27. Defend or rebut this statement: Faults that do not experience fault creep may be considered safe.


11.3 Seismology: The study of Earthquake waves (Pages 368-370)

  1. 28. Which type of seismic waves tend to cause the greatest destruction to buildings?


11.4 Determining the size of earthquakes (Page 372-375)

  1. 29. How much more energy does a magnitude 7.0 earthquake release than a 5.0 earthquake?



Answer the following questions that can be found on page 392 in your textbook (Earth, 11th edition).

  1. Question # 2, # 4, # 6





3.1 Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks (page 83)

  1. List five characteristics an Earth material must have in order to be considered a mineral.


3.4 How Do Minerals Form? (pages 89-90)

  1. (i) What is the chemical composition of the mineral matter secreted by most organisms?

(ii) What is the name of a mineral and a rock that results from this process?


3.5 Physical Properties of Minerals (pages 91-95)

  1. 33. Which physical property is most diagnostic for the following minerals?

(i) Graphite                       (ii) Galena                   (iii) Pyrite

(iv) Hematite                    (v) Calcite                    (vi) Talc

(vii) Biotite mica               (viii) Magnetite                       (ix) Olivine

  1. 34. What simple chemical test is useful in the identification of the mineral calcite?
  2. 35. (i) If an unknown mineral is scratched by topaz but orthoclase can’t scratch it, what is the hardness of that unknown mineral?

(ii) What is the name of the mineral whose hardness you determined in (i) above?

  1. 36. How many cleavages do each of the following minerals have?

(i) Muscovite mica             (ii) Plagioclase feldspar                       (iii) Calcite



Answer the following questions from page 115 of your textbook (Earth, 11th edition)

  1. QuestionS # 1, # 7, # 11



4.1 Magma: Parent Material of Igneous Rock (pages 119-121)

  1. (i) Compare and contrast extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks.

(ii) Give three examples each of extrusive and intrusive rocks.


4.3 Igneous Textures: What can They Tell Us? (pages 124-127)

  1. Explain how the crystals in pegmatites are able to grow so large.


4.4 Naming Igneous Rocks (pages 130-133)

  1. How are granite and rhyolite different? In what way are they similar?


4.5 How Magmas Evolve (pages 137-139)

  1. (i) Define the Bowen’s reaction series.

(ii) Name the mineral that crystalizes first from a cooling magma

(iii) Name the mineral that crystalizes last from a cooling magma



Answer the following questions from page 150-151 of your textbook (Earth, 11th edition)

  1. Questions # 2, # 10








5.2 Materials Extruded During an Eruption (pages 160-163)

  1. (i) List three main gases released during a volcanic eruption.

(ii) What role do gases play in an eruption?


5.9 Plate Tectonics and Volcanic Activity (pages 185-189)

  1. 44. At which of the three types of plate boundaries is the greatest quantity of magma generated?
  2. 45. Are volcanoes in the Ring of Fire generally described as quiescent or violent? Explain by giving one example that supports your answer.



Answer the following questions from page 195 of your textbook (Earth, 11th edition)

  1. Questions # 1, # 5



7.1 The Importance of Sedimentary Rocks (page 233)

  1. 47. Name one reason why sedimentary rocks are important.
  2. 48. How does the volume of sedimentary rocks in Earth’s crust compare to the volume of igneous and metamorphic rocks?


7.2 Origins of Sedimentary Rocks (pages 234-235)

  1. (i) List the three basic sedimentary rock categories.

(ii) Name two rocks each for the sedimentary rock categories you name in (i) above.


7.3 Detrital Sedimentary Rocks (pages 236-240)

  1. 50. Distinguish between conglomerate and breccia.
  2. 51. What is the primary basis for distinguishing among detrital rocks?


7.4 Chemical Sedimentary Rocks (pages 241-245)

  1. How do evaporites form? What are two examples?


7.6 Turning Sediment into Sedimentary Rock (page 250)

  1. List the three common cements. How might each cement type be identified?



Answer the following questions from page 266-267 of your textbook (Earth, 11th edition)

  1. Questions # 6, # 10



8.1 What is Metamorphism? (pages 271-272)

  1. What is meant by the statement “Every metamorphic rock has a parent rock”?


8.2 What Drives Metamorphism? (pages 273-276)

  1. Why is heat considered the most important agent of metamorphism?


8.3 Metamorphic Textures (pages 277-280)

  1. 57. (i) What is meant by nonfoliated texture?

(ii) Name two rocks that exhibit this texture.

  1. 58. (i) Briefly describe three ways in which the mineral grains in a rock develop a preferred orientation (that is, foliation).

(ii) Name two rocks that exhibit this texture.


GeoGraphics: Marble (pages 284-285)

  1. Name any three national or international landmarks where marble has been used in their making.



Answer the following questions from page 300-301 of your textbook (Earth, 11th edition)

  1. Questions # 1, # 2, # 8





  1. Distinguish between numerical (radioactive) dates and relative dates. (page 305)
  2. Refer to the geologic cross section accompanying question 10 on page 333 (your textbook). Your task is to place the lettered features in the proper sequence, from oldest to youngest.
  3. Would you expect to find fossils of humans and Dinosaurs in the same rock? Explain. (page 327)
  4. Define half-life. (page 321)
  5. Answer question 7 from page 332 in your textbook (Section: Give It Some Though).



  1. 66. List factors that cause infiltration and runoff to vary from place to place and from time to time. (pages 519-520)
  2. 67. How does geology (rock type) influence the four drainage pattern types? (pages 541-542)
  3. 68. In Figure 17.14, two wells are at the same level. Why was one successful and the other not? (page 569)
  4. 69. What warms the waters that flow at Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas, and at Warm Springs, Georgia? (pages 573-575)
  5. 70. Over the oceans, evaporation exceeds precipitation, yet sea level does not drop. Explain why. (pages 517-518)



  1. 71. What are oil sands, and where are they most plentiful? (pages 787-788)
  2. 72. What is the significance of the Green River Formation in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming? (pages 787-788)
  3. 73. What is the primary fuel used in nuclear power plants? (pages 789-790)
  4. 74. Name the principal ores for the following metals: Aluminum, Iron, Mercury, Uranium, Gold (Table 23.2, page 798)
  5. Answer question 7 from page 813 in your textbook (Section: Give It Some Though).



  1. 76. How has the atmosphere responded to the growing CO2 levels? (pages 721-725)
  2. 77. List and describe the factors that are causing sea level to rise. (pages 732-735)
  3. 78. Is global warming greater near the equator or near the poles? Explain. (pages 732-735)
  4. 79. How might volcanism lead to global warming? (page 719)
  5. Answer question 7 from page 739 in your textbook (Section: Give It Some Though).



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