Pre submission checking criteria:


  • At least one week before deadline – need to consider time for me to check your work, leadtime for TURNITIN checking and amendments
  • Proper email etiquette – otherwise I do not know who you are
  • Pre checking ONLY one time unless I tell you to resubmit for checking again (most likely because you have failed)



Format of ESSAY


  • No content page but remember to put page numbering
  • No section number but can use section heading
  • 5 line spacing, font TNR 12, Aerial 11, appropriate margins





The INTRODUCTION should provide a clear statement of the problem posed by the project, and why the problem is of interest. It should reflect the scenario, if available. If needed, the introduction also needs to present background information so that the reader can understand the significance of the problem. A brief summary of the unique approach (scope of report) you used to solve the problem should be given, possibly the content of the report.

This is what you should do:


Say what research methodologies you will be looking into

Justify the choice

  • State your objectives
  • Scope of research e.g. examine xx, followed by yyy, then ending with recommendations …




Literature Reviews


  • What are the key issues/problems/arguments in the areas chosen?
  • Critically review these issues
  • Try to focus into some convergent or agreements
  • Limit your literatures to same arguments or some ‘solutions’ that can solve issues highlighted.


You are expected to:


  • Explain the characteristic of your research method
  • The area of usage
  • Advantages and Disadvantages
  • The controversial
  • Contextual Supports needed :
  • Chose and discuss some concepts that can explain or support the findings from literature
  • Try to integrate theory/concept with literature findings to resolve issues
  • Literatures meant sources such as scholarly journals or applied literatures





  • Solutions based on literatures
  • Critically evaluate the advantages/disadvantages or maybe the feasibilities??


Note the followings when writing recommendations:


  • How are the recommendations link with the analysis above?
  • Any support from the models/concepts you have learnt?
  • Recommendations cannot be independent.  T
  • hey must arise from your analysis done and supported by concepts/journals.





The CONCLUSIONS should summarize the central point made in the Discussion section, reinforcing for the reader the value and implications of the work. The conclusions should never contain “surprises”. Therefore, any conclusions should be based on observations and data already discussed. It is considered extremely bad form to introduce new data in the conclusions.




  • Not bibliography
  • e. all in reference list has been used in essay
  • Harvard style (including in text citations)
  • Not more than 10% direct quotes





Common errors:


  • Right margin justification
  • Page numbering for every page
  • Citation format – (Surname, Year) for paraphrased statements of fact and information from other sources; (Surname, Year, p.X) for direct quote; NO INITIALs
  • Essay format – no section numbering, no table of contents, no executive summary
  • 5 line spacing; Font TNR 12 OR Aerial 11; same font and line spacing throughout essay
  • One paragraph does not form a section; one sentence does not form a paragraph.
  • Very huge paragraph is no good. Basic English is for one paragraph to have only one central idea/point.



What topics are acceptable:


This is a RESEARCH METHODOLOGY essay.  The followings are research methods:


  • Philosophies
    • Ontology
    • Epistemology
    • Axiology
    • Rhetoric
  • Paradigm
    • Positivist
    • Interpretivism
  • Aproaches
    • Deductive
    • Inductive
    • Qualitative
    • Quantitative
  • Designs
    • Delphi
    • Brainstorming
    • Experiment
    • Survey
    • Case study
    • Action research
    • Grounded theory
    • Ethnography
    • Archival research
  • Techniques
    • Questionnaire
    • Interviewing
    • Observation


  • FOCUS on:
  • the method (i.e. characteristics, procedures), advantages, disadvantages, usage areas for background/literature
  • the controversial (i.e. what the comments, disadvantages)
  • Recommend improvements


  • DO NOT write or focus on some body essay that use the method to find some thing.


For Example:


An essay on Nike consumer report using mystery shopper method.


Your assignment should focus and talk about the mystery shopper method – procedures, advantages, disadvantages, improvements.  NOT on what Nike has found out about their consumers and how Nike used the data from the mystery shopper method or how should Nike improve their marketing technique after using the data obtained from mystery shopper method.


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