# Newton’s Second Law of Motion

(1 point)

Title of the Experiment:

Student’s name:

Section SLN:

TA’s Name:

Week of the experiment:

Objectives: (3 points)

What is the physics concepts/theory/law to be investigated in this experiment?   It is one or two sentences in your own words.

Experimental Data (3 points): Insert experimental graphs and obtain from the graphs  all the experimental data that will be used for further calculations in Data Analysis.

PART 1. Horizontal, frictionless track and a moving system of constant mass

Table 1

 Run Mass on the hanger Acceleration of the system 1 2 3 4 5

Slope and its uncertainty from acceleration vs force graph: _______________________

PART 2. Two-way motion with friction on a horizontal track

Mass of the cart, M  =

Mass of the hanger, mh =

Table 2

Mean value of g:  ___________ standard deviation _________________number of runs_____

 Run Mass on the hanger Acceleration 1 (system moves towards motion sensor) Acceleration 2 (system moves away from motion sensor) aaver 1 2 3

Note: The uncertainty in the experimental gravitational acceleration equals the standard deviation in the average g value as determined by Graphical Analysis.

PART 3. Cart on frictionless tilted track

Calculated critical angle: _______________________________

Experimental critical angle: ______________________________

Data Analysis (10 points):

Be sure to include equations!

PART 1. Horizontal, frictionless track and a moving system of constant mass

• The net force applied to the system was calculated in Graphical Analysis as follows:

(Show equation)

• From the slope of the plot “acceleration vs. applied net force” the mass of the moving system can be determined as follows:

(Show equation and sample calculation)

• The uncertainty in the slope of the graph “acceleration vs. applied net force” propagates into an error of the experimentally determined mass of the system as shown below:

(Show equation and sample calculation)

• The discrepancy between the experimentally determined mass of the system from the slope of the graph and its actual value (msystem) has been calculated to be:

(Show equation and sample calculation)

PART 2. Two-way motion with friction on a horizontal track

• For each run separately the value of the acceleration due to gravity was determined as shown in the example below:

(Show equation and sample calculation)

• The discrepancy between the experimental and the theoretical (expected) value of gravitational acceleration is:

(Show equation and sample calculation)

PART 3. Cart on frictionless tilted track

• Include the free body diagrams for the cart on the tilted track and the hanger, derive the equation for the “critical” angle at which the cart stays still on tilted track. Calculate its value.

(Show equation and sample calculation)

• What acceleration would the system have as a result of 0.5 ° discrepancy in the tilt from the “critical” angle.

(Show sample calculation)

Results (3 points)

State all values in the correct format with uncertainties and appropriate units!

 MASS OF SYSTEM GRAVITATIONAL ACCELERATION “CRITICAL ANGLE” EXPERIMENTAL VALUE EXPECTED VALUE DISCREPANCY

Discussion and Conclusion (10 points):

This is the most important part of the lab report. It is where you describe whether your results support the physics principal being investigated in the lab. Begin the discussion with the purpose of the experiment. Briefly explain the theory concept that was tested. Then state only the key results (with uncertainty and units) quantitatively with numerical values; do not provide intermediate quantities. Discuss the relationship between your row measurements and your final results; the relationship between quantities in the graph; relationship between the independent and dependent variables. All questions below were also answered in the narrative form.

(Follow the general directions given in the Syllabus and describing how the Discussion and Conclusion section should be composed. In particular explain the relationship you recorded between acceleration and force. Also explain why the slope has slightly bigger value when the cart moves toward motion sensor when compared to when it moves away. Explain the nature of errors and reasons for discrepancies between your experimental and theoretical results. Include a paragraph that states whether Newton’s Second Law of Motion held based on your experimental data from both parts.)

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