The following final questions are take home exam and due at the beginning of class. Answers must be typed and handed in in hard copy on Friday May 04, 2018. You must attach a copy of these questions.


  • Which Ottoman Sultan conquered Constantinople? What year? Explain how did the Ottomans prepare for this battle, and what did the Ottoman army do when Constantinople walls were preached?
  • Compare the treatment of the defeated Byzantine army and people by the Ottoman army to that of the treatment of Salah al-Din to the knight-Crusaders when Salah al-Din sieged Jerusalem?
  • You can use the internet and some of the documentary videos. Here is some links to some sources you can use.
  • Constantinople: minute 23 (I think).

  • Salah al-Din and Jerusalem, minute 28.


  • What is the name of the new military system Ottoman founded? Why did they create this system? Explain this system to us?


  • What are the reasons for the decline of Islamic sciences according to the following scholars
  1. Neil DeGrasse Tyson makes a huge claim. What does he claim and why he claims that?

See the link:

  1. George Saliba responds to the scientist Neil DeGrasse, what is his respond to Neil DeGrasse’s claim See the link below




  • Which of the two scientists you agree with and why?



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