Strategic Change Management

Strategic Change Management

Unit Content
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1 Understand the background to organisational strategic change
1.1 , 1.2 Models: John P Kotter’s eight steps to successful change; Kübler-Ross five stages transition
(grief) cycle; Prosci’s five building blocks ADKAR (awareness, desire, knowledge, ability,
reinformcement) model; McKinsey’s 7S (strategy, structure, systems, shared values, skills, style,
staff) framework; Kurt Lewin’s change management model – unfreeze, transition and refreeze; BurkeLitwin’s
causal change model; action research; gap analysis
1.3 Strategic interventions: teambuilding consensus and conflict, game play, contingency theory,
autocratic versus participative style, proactive and reactive, creating synergy; human process
interventions; techno-structural interventions; human resources management interventions;
organisational and external
environment interventions
2 Understand issues relating to strategic change in an organisation
2.1 Need for change: reasons for change eg changes in markets, economic downturns, changes in
global markets, customer expectations, competitive edge, budget pressures, legislation, size,
demographics, mergers, acquisitions, change in mission, restructuring operations, new technologies,
major
collaborations, rightsizing, new programmes such as Total Quality Management
(TQM), re-engineering
2.2 Factors driving the change: change drivers eg economics, political factors, environmental, financial
pressures, new markets, loss of markets, technological advances, transition to a new chief executive,
funding cuts, need to be competitive
2.3 Resource implication: human resources eg restructuring, interviewing and hiring, redundancies,
training; physical resources eg equipment, vehicles, buildings; financial resources eg costs of training,
redundancy costs, relocation costs; new building, refurbishment of existing buildings
3 Be able to lead stakeholders in developing a strategy for change
3.1 , 3.3 Systems to involve stakeholders: stakeholder analysis, systems modelling, systems and subsystems,
input transformation-output modelling, multiple cause diagrams, ‘tropics’ factors,
configuration, divergence and convergence, functional and divisional structures, cultural web, images
of organisations, team development, influencing skills, awareness raising, commitment development
3.2 Involving stakeholders in the change management strategy: six steps stakeholder circle (identify
stakeholders, prioritise stakeholders, map their profiles, develop an engagement strategy, optimise
their support, monitor changes); methods of involvement eg dialogue with individuals and groups,
meetings, presentations, group facilitation, team building, coaching, delegating, developing and
sharing a change plan
3.4 Resistance to change: types of resistance eg individual versus collective, passive versus active,
direct versus indirect, behavioural versus verbal or attitudinal, minor versus major, resistance to the
content of change, resistance to the process of change.
Strategies: eg open communications, education, involvement, forums, listening to stakeholders,
feedback, addressing needs, ownership of the change, change champions, communicate the vision,
getting the support of all key power players, focus on the positives, delivering training programmes
4 Be able to plan to implement models for ensuring ongoing change
4.1 Plan to develop appropriate models for change: choice of appropriate model eg John P Kotter’s
eight steps to successful change; Kübler-Ross five stages transition (grief) cycle; Prosci’s five building
blocks ADKAR (awareness, desire, knowledge, ability, reinforcement) model; McKinsey’s 7S (strategy,
structure,
systems, shared values, skills, style, staff) framework; Kurt Lewin’s change management model –
unfreeze, transition and refreeze; Burke-Litwin’s causal change model; action research; gap analysis
4.2 Plan to implement a model for change: organisational development, Business Process ReEngineering
(BPR), learning organisation, Kaizen, delayering and right-sizing, matrix organisations,
network organisations, adhocracy, virtual organisation, push and pull strategies, conflict handling,
transformational leadership, empowerment, consultation, contextual planning, contingency planning,
adjustments, flexibility
4.3 Develop appropriate measures to monitor progress: eg goal-based evaluation, process-based
evaluation, outcome-based evaluation, regular reports, meetings, quality circles, progress reviews,
milestones, deadlines

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