Literature Review – Improving Customer/Communication & Correspondence Letters


APA Annotated Bibliography
APA – Use APA writing style to format the bibliographic information for the source used.
Annotated – Provide a paragraph of approximately 120-150 words that briefly describes and evaluates the content of the source.
Citations/Bibliography – The alphabetical listing of the sources used. This can include articles from journals, books, websites. These are the sources used for researching the topic.
Questions to Consider in Writing an Annotation:
1. What is this article about? Briefly summarize it.
2. Is this a reliable source?
3. For the topic covered, is the information given current? Note, some topics require very current information, e.g. how government regulations affect client care, whereas other topics the researcher is not as concerned about currency, e.g. the application of Jesus’ teaching on client care today.
4. If it is a research article, does the research seem reliable and well explained?
5. Will you use this source for your research topic and if yes, describe why?
6. If it is an article, is it from a peer-reviewed journal?
7. Is there information given in the source that helped you to either focus your topic or give further ideas of discussing your topic?
1. Format the citations per a References list for a written paper.
2. Double space everything, including the citations and the annotations.
3. The citation uses the hanging indent format for any 2nd or subsequent lines of the citation.
4. The first line of the annotation should be indented as you would for a direct quote that is 40 words or longer. It uses a block format for the paragraph, with no indenting.
5. If it is a long list, consider organizing them by topic to enhance the ease of reading the annotations.
6. Note examples below for 2 articles and 1 book on the topic of servant leadership.
An example follows, including the title page.
Annotated References
John Doe
Indiana Wesleyan University
Annotated References
Blanchard, K. H. (2005). Lead like Jesus: Lessons from the greatest leadership role model of all time. Nashville, TN: W Pub Group.
Using Jesus as the best model possible, Blanchard gives advice for any kind of leader to apply Jesus’ leadership model to our lives. He uses alliteration of the letter H in describing the characteristics. He talks about the heart, the head, the hands, the habits, etc. He motivates each leader to take concrete steps to applying Jesus’ model. Although written in a very enjoyable reading style, it does provide sound leadership attributes that anyone with a Christian worldview could model.
Carroll, A. B. (2005). Servant leadership: An ideal for nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit World, 23(3), 19–20. Retrieved from
Carroll briefly defines servant leadership as credited to R. Greenleaf. He then lists 10 keys to servant leadership, including common characteristics such as empathy, listening, etc. He concludes the article by giving six applications that can be made for the nonprofit manager. For any nonprofit leader striving to establish a culture of servant leadership in the workplace, this article gives good basics for achieving that goal.
Peete, D. (2005). Needed: Servant-leaders. Nursing Homes: Long-term Care Management, 54(7), 8–9. Retrieved from
Peete discusses the basic tenets of servant leadership as established by Greenleaf in 1970. He mentions several of the companies who have since implemented Greenleaf’s leadership style, e.g. Southwest Airlines, ServiceMaster, etc. He further emphasizes how this model can apply to housing for seniors. This article would lead the researcher to investigate further how servant leadership was implemented in the mentioned companies.


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