Research Paper Title:
Romantic Dysfunctionality in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s, “Winter Dreams” and Ernest Hemingway’s, “Hills Like White Elephants.”
RESEARCH PAPER INFO:
– Your research paper has to deal with both PRIMARY and SECONDARY material. PRIMARY material is the literature itself (1984, Hemingway and Fitzgerald short stories, Philip Larkin poetry). SECONDARY material are the books and essays that literary critics/academics have written about that PRIMARY material.
– Try to engage with at least 5 quotations from critics, as well as all of your quotations from the PRIMARY texts. You no NOT have to agree with the critics you are working with, but you can also use them to support your arguments, if you wish.
– Take a look at the essays in the CAMBRIDGE COMPANION books. There is one on George Orwell, one on both Hemingway and Fitzgerald. Check Amazon for books of literary criticism on Philip Larkin, or talk to me!
– Don’t be afraid to talk about the authors in your essays as well but DO remember to stay on the topic of your title, and to cite everything!
NOTES ON STYLE:
– AVOID the 1st Person! I don’t want to see anyone using “I” in their essays anymore.
– Use formal language. NO contractions (isn’t/couldn’t/won’t) and NO abbreviations (always say ‘quotation’, never ‘quote’).
– Try and engage with at least 5 good quotations from SECONDARY material, as well as all of your PRIMARY quotations.
– Put book and short story titles in inverted commas. Put poem titles in Italics.
Times New Roman
Bibliography with one to two sentences explaining how/why you used the source.
Example of how the bibliography should look like…..
“A noise with silence”: The practical and aesthetic implications of silence in the poetry of Robert Browning and William Butler Yeats.
Browning, Robert. Poems of Robert Browning. Ed. Donald Smalley. Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press, 1956.
This edition of Browning’s poetry contains a useful introduction by Donald Smalley that deals with the function of the dramatic monologue and the theory and practice of soliloquies throughout the author’s work. It further offers a series of notes designed to elucidate the various obscurities of certain poems on which this essay shall focus, such as “Porphyria’s Lover” and “My Last Duchess.” It would be useful to cross-reference these with the Norton edition of Browning’s poetry.
—. Robert Browning’s Poetry: A Norton Critical Edition. Ed. James F. Loucks and Andrew M. Stauffer. New York: W.W.Norton & Co, 2007.
This is a highly annotated version of Browning’s poetry that will be invaluable in the clarification of obscure Victorian idioms and references throughout his work. It also contains a number of useful essays on the function and implications of both the voices and the auditors in Browning’s poetry.
—. “To Algernon Charles Swinburne.” 5th Feb 1881. Letter 1881:3 of Letters of Robert Browning. Ed. Thurman L. Hood. London: John Murray, 1933. 193. Print.
This letter touches upon Browning’s notion of the proper place for silence in discourse between two individuals and the extent to which it can function as a more expressive means of communicating a sense of power and beauty.
Yeats, W.B. Mythologies. New York: Touchstone, 1998.
This contains the essential chapter “In Per Amica Silentia Lunae” from which this essay draws its title. The clarification of Yeats’s attitude to silence and its symbolic significance throughout his prose and poetry is expressed nowhere more clearly than in this text and, as such, it forms an essential reference point for this paper.
—. The Collected Poems of W.B. Yeats. Ed. Richard J. Finneran. New York: Simon & Schuster Inc, 1996.
This is an excellent edition of Yeats’s poetry with a detailed explanatory notes section on narrative and the dramatic. It is also arranged in chronological order, which will render it easier to track the progress of Yeats’s attitude to the aesthetics of silence in his poetry and the extent to which this attitude progressed or altered over time.
—. The Death of Cuchulain. Ed. Philip L.Marcus. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1982.
Although this essay deals primarily with the function and aesthetic implications of silence in a poetic context, I feel it would be remiss not to make reference to this final play by Yeats, since it is concerned with the Cuchulain myth, which is highly pertinent to my topic. I intend to consider it in conjunction with such poems as “Cuchulain Comforted” and “Long Legged Fly” that deal, in part, with the symbolic significance of silence in the depiction of an exceptional, or heroic, individual.
—. “Magic.” Essays & Introductions. London: Macmillan & Co Ltd, 1961. 28-52. Print.
This essay will assist me in the exploration of the extent to which Yeats perceives the mood and mechanics of silence and the supernatural to be necessarily associated with each other. I shall consider it in conjunction with “In Per Amica Silentia Lunae.”
Bloom, Harold. Yeats. Oxford and New York: Oxford UP, 1970.
This book contains a chapter on Victorian poetry and its impact upon the poetry of Yeats, as well as a close analysis and discussion of a number of the poems on which I intend to focus, including “Long Legged Fly.”
Howes, Marjorie and John Kelly. The Cambridge Companion to W.B. Yeats. New York: Cambridge UP, 2006.
This also contains a useful chapter on Yeats and Victorianism, which will be helpful in an analysis of the extent to which the poet was influenced by Victorian poetic traditions and, by extension, Browning. It also has a chapter on the occult that will be useful for the elucidation of the extent to which the mystical interacts with, and is born out of, silence, as touched upon in “In Per Amica Silentia Lunae.”
Wagner-Lawlor, Jennifer A. “The Pragmatics of Silence, and the Figuration of the Reader in Browning’s Dramatic Monologues.” Robert Browning’s Poetry: A Norton Critical Edition. Ed. James F. Loucks and Andrew M. Stauffer. New York: W.W Norton & Co, 2007. 576-589. Print.
This essay deals, in great detail, with the specific function and implications of the figure of the silent auditor in the poetry of Browning. It contains a clear evaluation of the mood provoked by the utilization of the dramatic monologue throughout Browning’s poetry and the curiously loquacious nature of the silence with which it is so often received.
Berdoe, Edward. The Browning Cyclopedia. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd and New York: Macmillan Co, 1924.
This book contains explanations and brief analysis of some of the more obscure references and terminology throughout the poetry of Browning.
Coote, Stephen. W.B. Yeats: A Life. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1997.
This will be helpful in resolving any chronological concerns I might have about the provocation and incentive behind some of the poems on which I shall focus. The shift in mood between Yeats’s earlier poems and his later ones is something that I wish to consider within the context of the function of silence in the world of his poetry, and the extent to which all poetry is forced to interact with this uniquely inescapable state.